The Court of Appeal is an appellate court, meaning that it deals with appeals from the ‘lower’ courts.
The Crown Court deals with more serious criminal cases such as murder, rape or robbery, some of which are on appeal or referred from magistrates' courts.
Family matters are dealt with in the Family Division of the High Court, by district judges in County Courts and in Family Proceedings Courts.
The High Court has three divisions: Chancery, Queen’s Bench and Family. All three divisions hear appeals from other courts, as well as “first instance” cases.
Magistrates, also known as Justices of the Peace, are unpaid trained members of their local community.
Tribunals deal with over a million cases a year, on dozens of different issues
County Courts deal with civil (non-criminal) matters. Civil court cases arise where an individual or a business believes their rights have been infringed.
There are certain protocols that are followed when addressing members of the judiciary.